Bruce Nauman was born in Fort Wayne, Indiana, in 1941. He acquired an M.F.A. from the University of California, Davis, in 1966. His debut show was at the Nicholas Wilder Gallery, Los Angeles, in 1966, and since then he has exhibited widely in North America and Europe, including contributions to Documentas 4 (1968), 5 (1972), and 7 (1982), in Kassel, Germany, and to the Whitney Biennials of 1984, 1991, and 1997. Several major exhibitions of his work toured, principally in Europe, in the 1980s, and in 1994–95 the Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, and the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Washington, D.C., organized a retrospective. Recent exhibitions include "Elusive Signs: Bruce Nauman Works with Light," organized by the Milwaukee Art Museum, Milwaukee and "A Rose Has No Teeth: Bruce Nauman in the 1960s," organized by the University of California’s Berkeley Art Museum and Pacific Film Archive. In 2009, Nauman will represent the United States at the 53rd Venice Biennale. Since 1979, Nauman has lived on a ranch near Galisteo, New Mexico, where, in addition to continuing his studio practice, he breeds horses.